ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

It is suspected that among fraternal twins, the first-born

twin has a higher resting heart rate from ages 0-2 years. The Excel sheet

provided by your instructor contains resting heart rate data (in beats per

minute) 129 pairs of randomly selected fraternal twins, measured at age 1 year.

Answer the following, furnishing relevant calculations and explanations where

appropriate:

(1)

a.

Write two to three sentences discussing the most

appropriate type of experimental design and sampling strategy for this

experiment.

b.

Suppose that the data set in this experiment was

not provided to you, how would you judge what sample size to collect?

(2)

a.

What type of inferential test would be

appropriate in this situation? Be sure to include valid statistical

justification and discuss both confidence interval estimation and hypothesis

testing in your response.

b.

Discuss the appropriate confidence and

significance levels. How did you calculate these values?

(3)

a.

State the formal null and alternative for your

hypothesis test determined in part (2) using symbolic form. Make sure to use

correct notation.

b.

State the formal null and alternative for your

hypothesis test in words.

(4)

Using the Excel sample data, complete the

relevant hypothesis calculations.

a.

Include an Excel screenshot showing the summary

statistics relevant to this hypothesis test.

b.

Furnish an Excel screenshot from the master

template, clearly highlighting the test-statistic, p-value, and any other

information you deem relevant.

(5)

Make a formal decision on the null hypothesis.

a.

State your decision in formal statistical

language.

b.

State your decision using language relevant to

the application discussed (resting heart rate difference between the twins).

(6)

Using the Excel sample data, complete the

relevant confidence interval calculations.

a.

Furnish an Excel screenshot clearly highlighting

the confidence level, lower limit, and upper limit, as well as any other

information you deem relevant.

b.

Is zero in your confidence interval? Explain why

this is important to note.

(7)

Discuss the implication of the confidence

interval.

a.

Does the confidence interval suggest the same

decision on the null as (6)? Explain how you arrived at your answer in detail.

b.

Discuss what the confidence interval tells us

about the difference between the twins’ heart rates at age 1 year.

(8)

If the sample size were increased to n=1290, but

the pattern in the data continued, what would you expect to happen to the

decision on the null? Would your decision be likely to change? Explain in

detail.

(9)

Finally, list at least three possible

confounding variables that may cause this experiment to be biased or

untrustworthy. How could you modify the experiment to control for these issues?

OTHER INFORMATION:

It is suspected that among fraternal twins, the first-born

twin has a higher resting heart rate from ages 0-2 years. The attached Excel

sheet contains resting heart rate data (in beats per minute) 129 pairs of randomly

selected fraternal twins, measured at age 1 year. Answer the following,

furnishing relevant calculations and explanations where appropriate:

(1)

Determine the most appropriate type of

experimental design and sampling strategy for this experiment. Note you are not

collecting the actual data, as the sample is provided, but describe how this

data set could be collected in the most accurate and unbiased way.

(2)

What type of inferential test would be

appropriate in this situation? Be sure to include valid statistical

justification and discuss both confidence interval estimation and hypothesis

testing in your response. Discuss the appropriate confidence and significance

levels.

(3)

State the formal null and alternative for your

hypothesis test determined in part (2). Make sure to use correct notation.

(4)

Using the attached Excel sample data, complete

the relevant hypothesis calculations. Furnish an Excel screenshot clearly

highlighting the test-statistic, p-value, and any other information you deem

relevant.

(5)

Make a formal decision on the null hypothesis.

State your decision both in formal statistical language and using language

relevant to the application discussed (resting heart rate difference between

the twins).

(6)

Using the attached Excel sample data, complete

the relevant confidence interval calculations. Furnish an Excel screenshot

clearly highlighting the confidence level, lower limit, and upper limit, as

well as any other information you deem relevant.

(7)

Discuss the implication of the confidence

interval. Does the confidence interval suggest the same decision on the null as

(6)? Explain how you arrived at your answer in detail. Discuss what the

confidence interval tells us about the difference between the twins’ heart

rates at age 1 year.

(8)

If the sample size were increased to n=1290, but

the pattern in the data continued, what would you expect to happen to the

decision on the null? Would your decision be likely to change? Explain in

detail.

(9)

Finally, list at least three possible

confounding variables that may cause this experiment to be biased or

untrustworthy. How could you modify the experiment to control for these issues?

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
It is suspected that among fraternal twins, the