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The dataset provides Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, and herfindahel index categories, please use the herf_cat variable and answer the following questions: Note: “The Herfindahl–Hir

Exercise #1:

The attached dataset, provides some information about hospitals in 2011 and 2012, download the data and then complete the descriptive table. Please use the following format to report your findings.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics between hospitals in 2011 & 2012

Hospital Characteristics

2011

2012

p-value

N

Mean

St. Dev

N

Mean

St. Dev

1. Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Number of paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Number of non-paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Total hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Total hospital revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Available Medicare days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Available Medicaid days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Total Hospital Discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Medicare discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Medicaid discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on your findings in which years hospitals had better performance? Please write a short paragraph and describe your findings.

(Note: Master RStudio script is available for this exercise, but you may need to modify that for this analysis)

Exercise #2:

Use the dataset from week1 exercise and then answer the following questions:

Compare the following information between teaching and non-teaching hospitals.What are the main significant differences between teaching and non-teaching hospitals? (use ttest)Comparing hospital net-benefit which hospitals has better performance? To answer this question first compute the hospital net benefits with subtracting hospital costs and revenues and then use ttest to compare the significant differences between teaching and non-teaching hospitals.Use a box-plot and compare hospitals-cost and hospital-revenues between teaching and non-teaching hospitals.Write a short paragraph and describe your findings.

Table 2. Descriptive statistics between teaching and non-teaching hospitals, 2011 & 2012

Hospital Characteristics

Teaching

Non-Teaching

p-value

N

Mean

St. Dev

N

Mean

St. Dev

1. Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Number of paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Number of non-paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Internes and Residents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. System Membership

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Total hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Total hospital revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Hospital net benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Available Medicare days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Available Medicaid days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Total Hospital Discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Medicare discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Medicaid discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Note: Master RStudio script is available for this exercise, but you may need to modify that for this analysis)

Exercise #3:

The dataset provides Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, and herfindahel index categories, please use the herf_cat variable and answer the following questions:

Note: “The Herfindahl–Hirschman Index is a commonly accepted measure of market concentration used by antitrust enforcement agencies and scholars in the field. The HHI is calculated by squaring the market share of each firm competing in the market and then summing the resulting numbers” (NASI, 2015; pp: 14-16).  read more from here:

https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/50116/2000212-Addressing-Pricing-Power-in-Health-Care-Markets.pdf

For this exercise you do not need to compute the HHI, but if you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask me, but try to learn more about this you will need that to report your findings.

Use the dataset from week1 exercise and then answer the following questions:

Compare the following information between hospitals located in high, moderate and low competitive markets? (table 1)What are the main significant differences between hospitals in different markets? (use Anova test)Use the density curves and compare hospitals cost and revenues between three markets.What is the impact of being in high-competitive market on hospital revenues and cost? Do you think being in high-competitive market has positive impact on net hospital benefits? What about the number of Medicare and Medicaid discharge? Do you think hospitals in higher completive market more likely to accept more Medicare and Medicaid patients? What are the impact of other variables? Please discuss your findings in 1-2 paragraphs.

(Note: to answer to the last question, please compute the ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge first and then run 2 ttest) high vs. moderate and high vs. low competitive market), please support your findings with box-plot).

Table 3. Comparing hospital characteristics and market, 2011 and 2012

 

High Competitive Market

Moderate Competitive Market

Low Competitive

 Market

ANOVA/Chi-Sq (results)

Hospital Characteristics

N

Mean

STD

N

Mean

STD

N

Mean

STD

1.      Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      Number of paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Number of non-paid Employee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.      Internes and Residents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.      System Membership

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.      Total hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.      Total hospital revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.      Hospital net benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.      Available Medicare days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.   Available Medicaid days

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.   Total Hospital Discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.   Medicare discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13.   Medicaid discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. Herfindahel index

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Note: Master RStudio script is available for this exercise, but you may need to modify that for this analysis)

Exercise #4

Linear Regression Model

If you have chosen to work with RStudio, please run the following model and complete the following tables.

1st Model:

Run a linear model and predict the difference between hospital beds (use the bed-tot) and hospital’s ownership on hospital net-benefit? Discuss your finding, do you think having higher beds has positive impact on the hospital net benefit? What about the ownership? 

 

Model 1a

 

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

R-Squared

 

 

 

 

2nd Model:

Now, estimate the impact of being a member of a system on hospital net benefit? And discuss your finding (nor more than 2 lines)? Is it significant?

 

 

Model 2

 

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

Membership

 

 

 

System Membership

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

R-Squared

 

 

 

 

3nd Model:

Now, include the ratio of ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge in your model? How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital revenues?

 

 

Model 3

 

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

Membership

 

 

 

System Membership

 

 

 

Socio-Economic Characteristics

 

 

 

Medicare discharge ratio

 

 

 

Medicaid discharge ratio

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

R-Squared

 

 

 

 

Based on your finding please recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance, please make sure to use the final model for your recommendation.

Discuss your findings. If you have chosen to work with Excel, please run above three models and complete the following tables.

Model 1:

Run a linear model and predict the difference between hospital beds (use the bed-tot) and hospital net-benefit in teaching hospitals?

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model 2:

Run a linear model and predict the difference between hospital beds (use the bed-tot) and hospital net-benefit in non-teaching hospitals?

Use the results from model 1 and model 2 and compare the results between teaching and non-teaching hospitals.

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model 3:

Now, include the ratio of ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge in first model? How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital net-benefit in teaching hospitals?

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

ratio-Medicare-discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

ratio-Medicaid-discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model 4:

Now, include the ratio of ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge in first model? How do you evaluate the impact of having higher Medicare and Medicaid patients on hospital net-benefit in non-teaching hospitals?

 

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital beds

 

 

 

 

 

 

ratio-Medicare-discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

ratio-Medicaid-discharge

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on your finding please recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance, please make sure to use the final model for your recommendation.

 

 

 

 

Exercise #5

For this week exercise, we need to try a few logit models (see this link for more information: https://stats.idre.ucla.edu/r/dae/logit-regression/)

Model 1

Run a logit model and use being a member of network and find out its impact on hospital ownership and hospital beds? (Model 1)

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

p-value

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

AIC

 

 

 

 

Model 2

Now, include hospital income and report the Coeff.? (Model 2)

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

p-value

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

Hospital Income

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

AIC

 

 

 

 

Model 3

Now, include the ratio of ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge in your model? And keep all variables you used for models 1, 2 & 3 and discuss your findings? Do you recommend keeping membership for a hospital? Why or why not? (Model 3)

Hospital Characteristics

Coef.

St. Err

p-value

Hospital beds

 

 

 

Ownership

 

 

 

For Profit

 

 

 

Non-for profit

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

Hospital Income

 

 

 

Medicare discharge ratio

 

 

 

Medicaid discharge ratio

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

AIC

 

 

 

 

Based on your finding please recommend 3 policies to improve hospital performance in FP, NFP hospitals, please make sure to use the final model for your recommendation.

 

 

If you have chosen to work with Excel, please run above three models and complete the following tables.

Model 1: Run a regression model and use being a member of network and find out its impact on hospital cost? (Model 1)

 

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model 2: For the 2nd model run a regression model and use being a member of network and find out its impact on hospital cost and hospital revenue? (Model 2)

 

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model 3: For the 3rd model run a regression model and use being a member of network and find out its impact on ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge.

 

Coef.

ST. ERR

T Stat

P-values

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Model-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hospital Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicare discharge ratio

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicaid discharge ratio

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

R Square

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on your finding please recommend 3 policies and discuss the impact of being on a network on hospital cost, hospital revenue and out its impact on ratio-Medicare-discharge and ratio-Medicaid-discharge. Do you recommend keeping membership for a hospital? Why or why not?

 

The dataset provides Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, and herfindahel index categories, please use the herf_cat variable and answer the following questions: Note: “The Herfindahl–Hir
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