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The sampling method known as random sampling ensures that each sample has an equal probability of being chosen (Rinjit 2020). For this study, a randomly chosen sample is meant to provide an accurate representation of the complete population.



Assignment Task

Method of Sampling

The sampling method known as random sampling ensures that each sample has an equal probability of being chosen (Rinjit 2020). For this study, a randomly chosen sample is meant to provide an accurate representation of the complete population.

Data Analysis

The current study used descriptive thematic analysis (in the form of group or combined analysis) to classify the information gleaned from the interview data to give the findings to the research aims and objectives. Data analysis is the most important phase of research. In the course of data analysis, the collected data are shown. Analytical and logical reasoning are required to find patterns, connections, and styles in data. To provide valuable information, data, and decision support, data analysis is the act of analyzing, rectifying, correcting, and modeling data (Sgier 2012). Data analysis is made up of a variety of approaches and techniques that are used in business and marketed under different names as well as a variety of approaches and techniques that are used in other settings. Data analysis is crucial in the business world of today since it aids in decision-making for firms. This research method includes data creation, data analysis, numerous analyses, and data filtering and preparation. The most crucial part of research is data analysis (Sgier 2012).

The study’s limitations

Research defects or weaknesses in this study may result from a lack of resources, a limited sample size, an inappropriate technique, or other difficulties (Rinjit 2020). There is no such thing as ideal research or taking into account every factor in terms of this research study. As a result, revealing research bounds indicates honesty, transparency, and a thorough comprehension of the issue. It was reasonable to predict that the study would have serious flaws. However, every inquiry needed to make every attempt to reduce the number of impediments. Only a short period was available for the researcher to gather information and choose various elements of research procedures that may be applied to the study (Rinjit 2020). It is more likely that the data-collecting strategy was faulty since the researcher lacked basic data-gathering skills. Since the researcher had little experience conducting research and writing academic articles, the breadth and depth of discussion of the study article were delayed in comparison to the work of experienced academics on many levels.

Considerations in Ethics


When it comes to protecting the rights of persons who are participating in research, the obligation to get informed permission or consent is an unavoidable premise. Before participating, prospective volunteers should typically be made aware of the research’s goals and objectives as well as any risks or drawbacks (Hürlimann 2019). They must offer their permission voluntarily and with full awareness of the conditions of participation. They must be made aware of the type of use that will be made of the data generated as well as their right to leave the project at any time. The researcher must show that the requirements of the project are met when the complete truth about the project cannot be given to or explained to the participants.

All participants were issued a consent form, and each of the 15 individuals provided a digital signature. Participants were interviewed face-to-face through a Zoom session, and the necessary data for the study was gathered during this time. Each participant was given a copy of the permission form.


The obligation of researchers to safeguard the data given to them is referred to as the ethical duty of secrecy. The responsibility to safeguard information against unauthorized access, use, disclosure, and alteration was a part of this duty. The participants were not forced to open their videos during the one-on-one Zoom online interview meetings to maintain strict confidentiality. The names of the research participants were kept a secret by the host of the meeting or the researcher, and they were requested to attend meetings with just their unique numbers, ranging from 1 to 15.

Privacy of collected data

The measures of data privacy were considered for this research study such as the research data should be kept in a safe area, such as a lockable cabinet for hard drives or a computer with a password for computer media (Hürlimann 2019). A higher level of security should be ensured for highly sensitive information, such as limited access, a locked network computer, an encrypted hard drive, etc.

4. Data Analysis

The procedures in the qualitative data analysis include reading many transcripts in search of patterns or distinctions, then identifying themes and developing categories. The material from the interview data was classified using descriptive thematic analysis, as was already mentioned above in the methodology section, to align the findings with the study’s goals and objectives. Finding patterns, relationships, and styles in the data required continual use of analytical and logical thinking. The thematic data analysis of the collected data in the form of a group is described or discussed below. The final interpretation is given at the end of the analysis of the responses received in combined thematic forms.

Joint thematic analysis of the data collected

Number of years of working with the company

The 14 participant’s reactions to this notion were studied, and it was discovered that the HR professionals and workers who were chosen at random for this research study are experienced members of the staff of Senwan, Alabina, and Bonyan Consulting Engineers. They said that they have been employed by these businesses for more than two to three years and it can be interpreted that their satisfaction, willingness, and support from the company made them stayed for that long. And from the Senwan firm, there is just 1 participant who has been employed by the company for just one year. Most of them have experience and are familiar with the organizational structures.

Nature of work within the company

According to the analysis of the interview responses, 60% of them work as established HR professionals for these three construction firms, Senwan, Alabina, or Bonyan Consulting Engineers. The remainder 40% are the general staff that assists in carrying out construction projects. According to the responses received it can also be interpreted that the some of the workers are working from home while others have flexible shifts.

Experience working in the construction industry

In the Libyan construction industry, the participants of the research are experienced with building and engineering knowledge, strong reading and math skills, communication skills, technological advancements, problem-solving, and teamwork skills.

Analyzing their experience in the construction industry, technical expertise is equally as crucial as physical prowess. A worker’s skill set is greatly enhanced by familiarity with the supplies and equipment required to perform a wide range of construction services. There is more than the simple manual effort involved in construction. To calculate building supplies, keep track of measurements, and make required corrections, workers need a working grasp of arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. Reading is another crucial ability because construction work necessitates a lot of documentation and plan interpretation. One of the most important building skills is communication. Poor communication is to blame for 48% of reworks in construction. Construction employees will need to be able to write emails, reports, and other papers in addition to being able to communicate questions, directions, and choices to their team on the job site. One of the most important building trends that will affect the sector in the next years is still technology.

Most of the participants said that they are required to adopt new developments in construction technology, such as augmented reality, virtual reality, mobile applications, and construction management software, to remain competitive in the market. On job sites, issues are constantly present. Issues must be resolved quickly to keep a project on pace, especially when worker safety is at stake, whether they relate to erroneous measurements or project delays. Every worker in the construction industry needs to be able to act quickly and come up with solutions on the spot. Construction work is very much a team activity and necessitates continuous peer collaboration. There is no time to spare for disputes and doubts on the job site.

With the aid of sustainable HRM practices, employees who can collaborate and communicate effectively with one another will be able to inspire their team and ensure that the project is finished on schedule. Construction workers require emotional intelligence as well as collaboration.

Major transformations experienced over the past 2 decades in the Libyan construction sector in terms of sustainability

This concept has been assessed in light of the participants’ responses to this interview question that rational decision-making is insufficient to properly describe HRM practice. The demands on those who are involved in developing and executing HR rules are often conflicting. The conflicting forces are suggested to be identified by the stakeholder perspective guiding sustainable HRM, and stakeholders are encouraged to critically analyze how their interests may affect the achievement of the sustainability and HRM objectives the firm is aiming for.

A transformative change approach including action learning processes includes sustainable HRM. A significant amount of change has been made in the organization’s culture, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and procedures to transition to a wide sustainability plan and a sustainable HRM strategy. Planning, taking action, determining the facts about the outcomes of the activity, and learning about the actions via critical reflection comprise the cycle of action learning. The staff of organizations are trying to attempt to influence stakeholders, just as stakeholders are influencing the organizational choices, especially HRM decisions, by exposing institutional forces. The effect of institutional forces on organizations has been also changed by stakeholders. The major problem with these methods for Sustainable HRM is that influence is not their primary goal. The main goal is to find shared meaning through team learning and conversation procedures.

Sustainable management of human resources in a construction company

It has been determined through analysis of the participants’ responses that sustainable HRM in a construction firm acknowledges the role that HRM plays in achieving social goals outside of the organization. These consist of the possibility of income growth and social capital impacts like societal well-being. HRM policies, like wage and salary rates and policies on training and education, have an impact on the distribution of income and wealth in society. Societies with greater wealth and income disparity have also been found to have fewer social networks, higher levels of social unrest, unequal access to educational opportunities, lower rates of social reproduction, and maybe slower rates of economic growth.

Thus, it can be interpreted that sustainable HRM helps to lessen these negative effects by working with external institutions and creating their own HRM policies. These Sustainable HRM components are once more illuminated by the stakeholder paradigm. Sustainability in HRM suggests that HR executives will play a bigger part. HRM executives work with important decision-makers to create an organizational strategy that produces positive financial, social, and ecological outcomes. This is one of the implications of sustainable HRM. Executives in HRM should encourage a synthesis approach to strategy creation with organizational stakeholders, claims Sustainable HRM. At its most extreme, such stakeholder communication has the power to alter the goods and/or services that a company provides.

Moreover, it is analyzed that the SHRM entails social dialogue and employee participation, environmental stewardship, employee development, compliance with laws and regulations outside of the realm of labor, profitability, long-term thinking, external partnerships, employee care, fairness and equality, and flexibility. These details were gleaned from participant responses and were simple to analyze here in the context of Sustainable HRM.

Human resource management practices in the company that can be considered sustainable

According to participant responses, it can be analyzed that the companies, Senwan Group, Allabina Architecture and Engineering Consultancy and Bonyan Consulting Engineers (BCE) currently practice many sustainable human resource management attributes as part of their routine commitments though a vast majority of participants are optimistic that due to growing concerns, companies are working to integrate sustainable techniques into their operations as a matter of HRM policy. This will help companies achieve a favorable influence and societal viewpoint on employee relations. .

Apart from their contribution to the job’s functional requirements, some of the participants discussed the need for protecting the environment which supports the growth of comprehensive employee wellness. Another idea that came out from the analysis is that, in these firms, selection and other HRM practices, particularly recruitment is completely integrated. In its simplest form, selection refers to the procedure of gathering data about job seekers to aid decision-making. The HRM personnel are utilizing various methods for improving the HRM practices such as flexible working, employee satisfaction and appreciation, etc. They are working on strategic HRM skills to make improvements in the practices within the organizations. Thus, it can be interpreted that the management usually decides what steps to take throughout the recruiting and selection process to ensure that the organizational plan is implemented with lasting success. So, for enabling efficient selection, a suitable selection system depends on current and need-based testing. Furthermore, significant resources are realized to be needed to guarantee the effectiveness of these selection tests.

Employee cooperation, a key SHRM quality, was another characteristic that emerged from participants’ responses. Cooperation is imperative among employees because it helps to build and nurture synergy between competent employees, thereby helping the organization to do well (Paul & Anantharaman, 2003). Accordingly, for bringing enduring organizational outcomes, employees or subordinates are required to be committed, satisfied, and motivated, as mentioned earlier.

Some of the human resource personnel of Sewan Group indicated that they receive incentives in the form of discounts on a variety of entertainment, travel, and other types of discounts, while field employees receive discounts from local restaurants that are frequented by employees along side with transportation benefits for public transportation and bike purchase.

These incentives include both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Direct and indirect compensation, such as benefits, are additional divisions of monetary compensation. Although employees have different views on how benefits are valued, there is still opportunity or flexibility in benefit choices, and these employees always receive high value.

Participants responded that the sustainable HR outcomes include behaviors that have an impact on absenteeism and turnover as well as attitudes like employee satisfaction, retention, and employee relations. Employee cooperation is essential for the success of the company because it fosters the synergy that highly skilled personnel may create. Employees or subordinates need to be devoted, content, and motivated to provide long-lasting organizational results. Job satisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover have a significant detrimental impact on long-term HRM and performance as ascertained by the responses of the participants.

It is evident from the participant responses that most of them expressed satisfaction with working for their own companies. Employee satisfaction is the degree to which workers come to like their work. As a result, the total reflection of employee happiness will result in work satisfaction. Whenever employees are content with their employment, organizational growth occurs automatically, and as a result, the employees receive both financial and in-kind rewards. As previously stated, obtaining contentment involves three factors, the company’s reputation, time, and working circumstances. Relationships among employees are important to job happiness because workers will consider having a personal relationship with their employers. Poorly treated employees may leave the company if they believe their contributions are not crucial to the organization’s long-term success. They are also the mechanism through which internal excellence in organizational operations may be achieved. Employee welfare should thus be given top attention by the organization’s senior management since employee contentment affects an organization’s performance as a whole. Another crucial HR result in the pursuit of achieving organizational success is the relationship or correlation between a subordinate’s motivation and work satisfaction.

After getting the participants’ responses, it was analyzed that the technology has been led by staff, and open communication on the application of organizational norms, culture, and problem-solving in the workplace has an impact on employee relations. Fair recruiting procedures, equitable employment opportunities, solid credentials, and keeping records of employer actions that are mandated by law are among the most crucial employee relations activities carried out by HR managers. Workplace behavior, rules of conduct, and employee conduct are the three main categories into which employee interactions may be classified. Individual conduct investigates disciplinary concerns, whereas workplace behavior looks at difficulties specific to the employee.

Additionally, methodical, and rationalized employment procedures including job assessment and training, candidate job testing, and performance-related compensation must be aligned with the demand for employee relations as analyzed from the data collected by the participants. However, to get decent outcomes, formal employment selection procedures must be followed. Managers have good communication skills to handle employee interactions efficiently. To build a culture of trust and respect for one another, managers are aware that the open and regular dialogues should be tolerated.

Organizational rules were promoted for the involvement of HR Managers in resolving problems on the ground. There are several ways to improve employee relations and attitudes by utilizing different combinations of HR strategies. Because management is a change agent that impacts changes in the organization, management behavior as a face-to-face engagement with the workers is appropriate. As a result, to increase quality and promote collaboration via management, managers must function by basic criteria, such as norms, values, and principles.

Adoption of sustainable human resources management in the company’s work process

For the adoption of sustainable human resource management in the company’s work, the respondents responded with varied ideas that the HR division’s job is to actively advise the executive team on organizational culture. A strategy culture plan that is in line with the organization’s values and goals is developed by HR leaders in collaboration with other senior leaders. The plan must then be improved and put into action. The organizational culture initiatives that HR directors develop are to be based on employee feedback, not only on ideas they picked up at conferences or in books. The most crucial job for HR departments in creating an enduring corporate culture is gaining support from potential workers even before they sign on with the business.

Moreover, this is being be accomplished by incorporating the company’s sustainability message into its employer brand and using it to draw in prospects that value it. HR is also rewarding staff members who are make suggestions for enhancing sustainability efforts. When it comes to creating and preserving a company’s culture, HR may strategically play several roles. The performance management method of the company should be in line with its vision, purpose, values, and guiding principles. This is where HR can have the largest influence. Next, it’s crucial to support leadership in aligning recognition and reward programs to recognize and promote good actions that relate to these similar areas. Finally, HR should serve as an example for other executives and coach them. The HR department oversees reminding executives how company actions are viewed.

Impact of sustainable human resources management and whether it improved or reduced the existing performance

It has been analyzed from the responses of the participants that the notion that sustainable human resource management has a positive effect on their long-term development and performance. The bulk of the responses showed that the respondents’ coworkers’ and other employees’ professional growth have been favorably influenced. It enhanced current performance in terms of incentives, trainings, efficient avenues for communication, and feedback exchange.

Prospects for Libyan construction companies to implement sustainable human resource management practices in their workplaces

Analyzing the responses from the participants, it has been analyzed that sustainable HRM is important for sustaining healthy and effective staff in general as well as for recruiting and keeping talent. This is especially important in situations when businesses must deal with the effects of an aging workforce or a shortage of young talent as a result of demographic changes or choices to cut down on spending on education and training. Organizations, and particularly HRM, lose significant potential by delaying these decisions rather than integrating the future into the present, and doing so makes it harder to bring about positive change in the future.

It might be tempting to wait for others, especially in the business sector where it can appear hazardous to be a trailblazer. However, innovation has been the key to humanity’s success up to this point, allowing us to consider workable alternatives to the methods we now do business and manage employees in companies. The function of HRM in creating sustainable HRM and work systems may be described, analyzed, explained, and discussed in future research on sustainable HRM.

To build a corporate culture where everyone can contribute to its success, HRM should pay attention to the demands and recommendations of the people and implement the changes with them.

People who participate in the process of creating a company’s culture develop a connection with it and a sense of belonging.

By using a social and environmental perspective, HRM should take the lead in examining the business structure and creating a work environment that is in line with sustainability objectives.

In accordance with sustainability objectives, HRM should continuously assess the business structure and foster an enabling work environment.

Changes that are needed to improve the existing HRM in Libyan construction companies

It has been determined from the interview responses of the respondents that business executives that use the best human management strategies are more equipped and more eager to take advantage of the opportunities available to operate their organizations. To be successful, managers must anticipate and seize new opportunities in talent management before the competition. This is only feasible if they go above and beyond just adopting the latest trends. Changing a proactive approach instead of a reactive one demonstrates the need for strategic talent management in the business processes to support the expansion of the organization’s capabilities.

The need for training and development of change arises from its impact on how change management is incorporated into business operations.

Annual reviews and evaluations may be highly helpful instruments for evaluating the capability and skills of the workforce if carried out on a regular and suitable basis. Companies should therefore adopt a pay-for-performance culture to boost staff productivity. This might encourage staff to put in more effort, which would improve their capacity to adapt to changing times and adopt new technology.

Sustainable management of human resources for the future of the Libyan construction company

This concept has been assessed in light of the participants’ responses to this interview question that in the future, HR specialists in the three selected companies of Libya aim to play the role of champion coaches, leading organizations through anticipated challenges and playing a crucial role in HR strategy and planning. Additionally, HR divisions would be more adaptable, leading to quicker decision-making through increased communication. Sustainable HRM methods will make it possible for employees to meet their financial, social, and environmental objectives for their employers. Furthermore, sustainable practices attempt to minimize unintended consequences and unfavorable feedback while delivering outcomes that meet stakeholder expectations.

Final Interpretation

According to the above-combined analysis of the information obtained from the 15 respondents, it has been determined that sustainable HRM is being practiced in the Libyan construction sector. The effects on the success of construction projects are highly on the significant changes that participants have witnessed over the past 20 years in the sustainability of the Libyan construction industry. The cycle of action learning includes planning, taking action, establishing the facts regarding the results of the activity, and learning about the activities through critical reflection. Organizational personnel can try to persuade stakeholders, just as stakeholders can persuade organizations to change, particularly when it comes to HRM decisions, by revealing institutional factors. Furthermore, sustainable HRM in a construction company recognizes the part HRM plays in attaining societal objectives outside of the enterprise. These include the potential for income growth and social capital effects like improvements in societal well-being. Employee satisfaction, employee relationships, cooperation, and other HR practices used by companies are also be regarded as sustainable. Rewards are provided as types of payment. Both monetary and non-monetary perks are offered as part of these incentives. Their long-term growth and performance are benefited from the sustainable human resource management. The majority of the analysis demonstrates that the respondents’ coworkers’ and other employees’ professional development was positively impacted. Future employees will be able to accomplish their financial, social, and environmental goals for their companies thanks to sustainable HRM techniques.